Prostate Cancer: The Causes, Prevention and Treatments
Examining the causes of Prostate Cancer and the ways it can be treated or managed
Last Updated on 9 months by William
Prostate cancer is caused by an abnormal growth of cells in the prostate glands. The prostate is the size of a walnut gland which affects men, and it’s usually located just below the bladder and at the front of the rectum and surrounds the urethra (which is the tube that flushes the urine out of the bladder). Also, the prostrate produces and stores a fluid that helps to produce semen, which is involved in the regulation of bladder control.
What Causes Prostate Cancer?
While it is not yet clear precisely what causes prostate cancer, scientists are researching such risk factors to establish if certain factors lead to the growth of cancer in prostate cells.
Who are those at risk for prostate cancer?
Some men are at a greater risk of prostate cancer than some others, which could influence when they start to be examined. Risk increases with age, especially after age 50. Most risk factors include the following:
- African – American Men are significantly more likely to develop the condition than white men.
- Having a family history – a father or a brother treated for cancer, especially if he is relatively young – increases the risk.
- Family background of breast and ovarian cancer could also be linked with a hereditary risk of having prostate cancer.
- High-fat diet and obesity
- Sedentary lifestyles
Nevertheless, steps may be taken to help avoid prostate cancer, which may minimize risk, including physical exercise and diets low in fat and high in fruit, vegetables and whole fibre. Foods with high levels of antioxidants lycopene, such as grapes, grapefruit and melon, can help to reduce the danger. Additional preventive measures are now under review.
Types of Prostate Cancer
Much of the cases of prostate cancer are a form of cancer called adenocarcinoma. This is cancer that arises in the tissues of the gland, like the prostate gland.
Prostate cancer is often classified by how quickly it is growing. It has two styles of growth:
- Fast-growing, or aggressive
- Slow growing, or nonaggressive
For non – aggressive prostate cancer, the tumours often do not expand or develop so little over time. With advanced prostate cancer, the tumour may develop rapidly and can spread to other parts of the body, like the bones.
What symptoms do patients with prostate cancer have?
In several cases, there are no symptoms of prostate cancer. In exceptional cases, men may develop some signs of advanced prostate cancer. Nevertheless, these indications are also seen in many men that don’t have cancer, so it is better to discuss them with a doctor before reaching any conclusions. Some of these symptoms can include trouble emptying the bladder, blood in the urine, and joint pain.
How Prostate Cancer Diagnosed?
The screening of prostate cancer includes:
- Digital rectal examination-Doctor sticks a gloved finger into the rectum to scan for lumps on the prostate.
- Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test-a blood sample is tested for protein levels released by the prostate that, when raised, can suggest the signs of cancer.
- New urinary (PCA3 and MDx Select) and blood (4 K score and PHI test) biomarkers are often sometimes used to test for prostate cancer in men thought to be at risk for diagnosis.
Tips to prevent prostate cancer
- Quit your smoking habit
- Make good choices about
- Consider soybeans in all your diet and tea
- Eat tomatoes and other red foods
- Recognize the power of veggies and fruits
- Make out for exercises
- Talk to doctor
Treatments for Prostate Cancer
Treatment will be based on the particular phase of prostate cancer:
In the following pages, we list some treatment choices for each phase of prostate cancer, and even some new therapies and what treatment means for fertility:
Early Stage of the Prostate Cancer
Your doctor could recommend the following if the cancer is a localized small one:
Watchful waiting or Monitoring
Your doctor may check your PSA blood levels frequently but will take no immediate action. Prostate cancer develops very slowly, and the risk of side effects could be more than the immediate need for treatment.
Your doctor could carry out prostatectomy. Using the open surgery or laparoscopic procedure, he can remove the prostate gland.
The Options Include:
Brachytherapy: The doctor will inject radioactive seeds into the prostate to provide focused radiation therapy.
Conformal Radiation Therapy: This targets a particular region, mitigating the danger to healthy tissues. Another form, called Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy, uses variable-intensity beams. Treatment can depend on several variables. The doctor will examine the best choice for each client.
Advanced Treatments for Prostate Cancer
It will spread across the body as cancer progresses. If it progresses, or if it occurs after remission, the care options will change.
Options shall include the following:
Chemotherapy: This can destroy cancer cells throughout the body, but it can cause allergic reactions.
Hormonal therapy: The drugs Androgens are male hormones. The largest androgens are testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Blocking or reducing these hormones tends to stop or slow the development of cancer cells. One method is to undergo surgery to correct the testicles that contain most of the hormones in the body. Various medications will help, too.
Lupron is a form of hormone therapy used by physicians to treat prostate cancer. What kind of treatment does this involve?
Many surgeons do not recommend surgery at a later stage, since it does not cure cancer that has spread to other areas of the body. However, some analysts have indicated that it may help in some situations.
Effects on Fertility
The prostate gland has a role to play in human reproduction. Prostate cancer and many of its interventions impact fertility in a variety of ways.
For instance, if a man has surgery to remove either the prostate gland or the testicles, the development and fertility of semen may be compromised. Radiation therapy can also affect prostate tissue, destroy sperm and decreases the quantity of semen required to transport it. Hormonal therapy may also affect fertility.
Nevertheless, some of the possibilities for managing these roles include:
- Pre-operative banking semen
- Extraction of sperm straight from the testicles for artificial insemination
There is no certainty, however, that fertility will remain in place following treatment for prostate cancer. Anyone who wishes to have children after therapy should explore pregnancy choices with their doctor before they create their treatment plan.